Infectious Diseases

Should we fight ALL bacteria??

What is MEASLES?

How the World won the battle against SMALLPOX…

Tuberculosis…we keep on fighting…

Malaria…an ancient disease…

HIV / AIDS …a modern enemy

https://youtu.be/ng22Ucr33aw

We MUST be careful when using ANTIBIOTICS…but WHY?

Esta entrada fue publicada en Biology, S5 2015. Guarda el enlace permanente.

15 respuestas a Infectious Diseases

  1. Majo Tear ANTONIA and BELU GAY dijo:

    MALARIA
    Ancient parasite which has been present from a long time ago
    * Lyfe Cycle: between the human and the mosquito.
    Mosquito infected with malaria parasite, as it is pregnant the mosquito is hungry for human blood
    With it’s saliva, it prevents blood claughting, and the saliva carries the parasite.
    The malaria parasite travells thorugh the blood stream and gets into the liver.
    In the liver the parasite searches for an exit.
    Kupffer cell is the entry point to the liver tissue so through it the malaria passes and starts to kill the cells of liver
    The parasite starts to duplicate and creates thousands of new parasites. This new parasites are developed differently so they have another target to infect
    for example the red blood cell. Inside the red blood cell the malaria parasite hides form the immune system and they start to generate more.
    The red blood cell changes shape and it becomes sticky so it attaches into the blood vessel wall. Once mature the ifected cell bursts and spreads more parasites into the blood stream
    The infected person suffers from fever, blood loss, brain damage and comma.
    Most common inffected are children under the age of 5 and pregnant woman.
    HIV/AIDS
    Facts
    global problem.
    Kills the human immune system
    there is no cure
    Hiv causes AIDS, the infection makes the patient very sick and die
    Virus can be transmitted by anyone, it is transmitted by having unprotected sex, with blood, semen and vaginal secretions. By sharing needles or equipment that injects something into the body also is a way of transmitting the disease. Children with a mother that carries HIV also gets the virus.
    You find out you have HIV with tests, and you should be tested between the age of 13 and 64. people with multiple sex partners, pregnant woman and poeple who is injected with needles too.
    If you find out you have HIV you can get treated and prevent it from getting it worse or transmit it.
    Prevention: by abstinence, or have sex with an uninfected

  2. Mili Alezzandrini and Belu Gay dijo:

    NOTE TAKING
    Disease: illness or disorder of the body or mind tht leads to poor health
    Each desease is linked to a set of symptoms

    Non infectiuos diseases
    Intherit or genetic diseases (cystic fibrosis\ sickle cell anemia)
    Mental disease
    Long term degenerarive disease (lung cancer)

    Pathogens
    Infectous disease

    Incidence of a disease:number of people who are diagnosed over a certain period of time
    Prevalence if a disease: number of people who hace that disease at any one time
    Epidemic: sudden increase in the number of people with a disease
    Pandemic:increase in the number of cases thoughout a continent of across the world
    Mortality:death rate from different diseases

    Transmission cycle: way in which a pathogen passes from one host to another
    Control methods: try to break transmission cycles
    Vaccination:
    Antibiotics: against bacteria and fungi
    Selective toxicity:killing or disabling pathogen but not host cells
    Broad spectrum against a wide range
    Narrow spectrum active only against a few

  3. Francisco Okecki, Virginia Loza and Agustina Buljevich dijo:

    Measles.
    -90% of those not vaccinated get it
    -Highly contagious
    -Incubation period of 7-14 days
    -Symptoms> Fever, cough, runny nose and watery eyes.
    -After several days rash erupts
    -There can be complications such as diarrhea and ear infection or even pneumonia

    Smallpox.
    Symptoms>
    -Fever
    -Overall discomfort
    -Headache
    -Severe fatigue
    -Severe back pain
    -Vomiting
    Treatment>
    -Isolation
    -Avoid dehydration
    -Medications for fever and pain
    -Nutritional support
    -Skin care
    -Smallpox vaccination
    Causes>
    Smallpox is caused by infection with the variola virus.

    We are missing Tuberculosis

  4. Francisco Okecki, Virginia Loza and Agustina Buljevich dijo:

    Measles.
    -90% of those not vaccinated get it
    -Highly contagious
    -Incubation period of 7-14 days
    -Symptoms> Fever, cough, runny nose and watery eyes.
    -After several days rash erupts
    -There can be complications such as diarrhea and ear infection or even pneumonia

    Smallpox.
    Symptoms>
    -Fever
    -Overall discomfort
    -Headache
    -Severe fatigue
    -Severe back pain
    -Vomiting
    Treatment>
    -Isolation
    -Avoid dehydration
    -Medications for fever and pain
    -Nutritional support
    -Skin care
    -Smallpox vaccination
    Causes>
    Smallpox is caused by infection with the variola virus.

    Tuberculosis

  5. Joaquín Olaizola & Juan Ignacio Lopez Vargas dijo:

    MEASLES is one of the most contagious viruses. It’s spread by breathing, coughing and sneezing. It can stay in the atmosphere up to two hours. One person can infect 18. The incubation period is from 7 to 14 days. Syntoms are: high fever, cough, runny nose and red n watery eyes. After several days a rash erupts. It may bring other complications such as ear infections, diarrea, pneumonia and encephalitis. This last can cause permanent brain damage. There is a vaccine that’s 97% effective.

    SMALL POX is a deadly virus that’s spreads through air attacking the cells of the skin, bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes. It may cause fever, vomit and skin eruptions or rushes. 30% of infected people died during the second week of infection, Survivors bore scars and scabs.
    Women who got cowpox didn’t develop smallpox. The two viruses are from the same family. Cowbox virus protects people from the smallpox virus. Jenner used the cowbox virus to create the vaccine of the smallpox virus.

  6. Francisco Ripoll dijo:

    Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air. Most infections do not have symptoms, known as latent tuberculosis. About one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected.

    The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the last of these giving rise to the formerly common term for the disease, “consumption”). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or blood tests. Treatment is difficult and requires administration of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Household, workplace and social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infections. Prevention relies on early detection and treatment of cases and on screening programs and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis

  7. ANTO MAJO dijo:

    MEASLES
    most contagious of all diseases
    90% that are exposed to the virus will get infected
    Is spread by breathing, coughing, sneazing, and personal contact
    one person can affect 18 non infected.
    Incubation period: 7 to 14 days.
    the sympotms are high fever, cough, runny nose and red and watery eyes
    after several days a rush erupts and spreads all over the body.
    A few days later the rush breaks out
    some complications can be ear infection and diarrea.
    some severe complications can be pneumonia and encephalitis
    and can cause permanent brain damage
    One or two in 1000 children will die, and the virus can be prevented vaccination that is 97percent effective.
    The virus declared eliminated in USA as vaccine started. it no longers originates there since 1997.

  8. Nicolás Araya and Juan Cruz Gomez Roca dijo:

    SMALL POX

    Erradicated due to vaccines. 30% of the infected died. Started in Egypt.

    Symptoms:
    High fever
    Vomit
    Skin eruptions

    1022 A.C. — infect to never contract again
    1700 — vaccinate with bovine small pox, it was Jenner who discovered this and it is still used as protection.

    MEASLES

    90% of people exposed (not vaccinated) will get it.

    Spread by:
    Coughing, breathing and sneezing
    1 person can infect 18

    Incubation –> 7-14 days

    Symptoms:
    Fever
    Cough
    Runny nose
    Red & watery eyes
    Rash eruption

    Can result in:
    Eat infections
    Diarrhea
    Pneumonia
    Encephalitis
    Permanent brain damage

    Vaccines are 97% effective. It was eliminated in the USA (2000). Outbrakes in 2015.

    TUBERCULOSIS
     
    1/3 of the population has it. Only a few of them are actually sick.
    Tuberculosis mycobacteria

    One somebody gets infected – microphages defend our system, transport them to lymph nodes were they are neutralized –> passive.
    Sometimes immune system gets overwhelmed. The neutralization can cease to work. The bacteria go through the bloodstreams and affect everything

  9. Francisco Ripoll dijo:

    Measles, also known as morbilli, rubeola or red measles, is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus. Initial signs and symptoms typically include fever, often greater than 40 °C (104.0 °F), cough, runny nose, and red eyes. Two or three days after the start of symptoms, small white spots may form inside the mouth, known as Koplik’s spots. A red, flat rash which usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body typically begins three to five days after the start of symptoms. Symptoms usually develop 10–12 days after exposure to an infected person and last 7–10 days. Complications occur in about 30% and may include diarrhea, blindness, inflammation of the brain, and pneumonia among others. Rubella (German measles) and roseola are different diseases.

    Measles is an airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of those infected. It may also be spread through contact with saliva or nasal secretions. Nine out of ten people who are not immune who share living space with an infected person will catch it. People are infectious to others from four days before to four days after the start of the rash. People usually only get the disease at most once. Testing for the virus in suspected cases is important for public health efforts.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measles

  10. Francisco Ripoll dijo:

    Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, derived from varius (“spotted”) or varus (“pimple”). The disease was originally known in English as the “pox” or “red plague”;the term “smallpox” was first used in Britain in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the “great pox” (syphilis). The last naturally occurring case of smallpox (Variola minor) was diagnosed on 26 October 1977.

    Infection with smallpox is focused in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat before disseminating. In the skin it results in a characteristic maculopapular rash and, later, raised fluid-filled blisters. V. major produced a more serious disease and had an overall mortality rate of 30–35 percent. V. minor caused a milder form of disease (also known as alastrim, cottonpox, milkpox, whitepox, and Cuban itch) which killed about 1 percent of its victims. Long-term complications of V. major infection included characteristic scars, commonly on the face, which occur in 65–85 percent of survivors. Blindness resulting from corneal ulceration and scarring, and limb deformities due to arthritis and osteomyelitis were less common complications, seen in about 2–5 percent of cases.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox

  11. Antonia Flores Piran and Majo Tear dijo:

    How the body reacts
    One third of the population is infected with tuberculosis
    Only a portion if this population is affected by the disease
    The bacteria is: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    When someone infected cough the mycobacteria fly and goes into the air and can be inhale by someone that is not infected.
    The bacterium goes into the lungs. The body detects the infection and sends the micro faces and sends the bacteria to the lymph nodes. If the bacteria become neutralized the person lives with non-active tuberculosis and they are not sick.
    5% of the cases the immune system is overwhelmed and the bacteria multiplies and the person falls ill. Children are more common to get sick as the immune system has not been fully developed.
    Sometimes the non-active tb can become activated. Especially on adults who have weak immune system. For example HIV positive, people that has organ transplants or going into chemotherapy.
    The bacterium travels through the blood steam to all the parts of the body. People who has tb has active coughing, difficulty breathing and chest pain. They can also have fever and weight loss

  12. Delfina Subirá dijo:

    Note taking
    DISEASE
    Illness or disorder
    Leads to poor health

    Phatogens
    Infectious diseases
    Communicable
    From infected to uninfected people

    Endemic disease:
    In populations
    Incidence: number of people who get diagnosed (new patients)
    Prevalence: number of people who are ill, not only the new ones
    Epidemic: sudden increase in the number of people who become ill
    Pandemic: increase in the number of people infected throughout a continent or across the world
    Mortality: death rate from different diseases

    HUMAN PATHOGEN TRANSMISSION
    Infection caused by:
    • airborne transmission
    • contaminated water
    • contact and faeces
    • pathogens in blood stream and tissues

    TRANSMISSION CYCLE: way in which a pathogen passes from one host to another
    CONTROL METHODS: try to break transmission cycles
    VACCINATION: another way to fight diseases, it is prevention

    Spread by:
    Direct contact
    Indirect contact

    ANTIBIOTICS (against bacteria and fungi)
    Selective toxicity (killing or disabling pathogen but NOT host cells)
    Broad spectrum (against wide range)
    Narrow spectrum (active only against a few)

    ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY TEST
    By Delfina Subirá

  13. Antonia Flores Piran and Majo Tear dijo:

    Disease
    Illness or disorder of the body or mind that leads
    NON INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    -inherited or genetic diseases
    -Mental diseases
    -Long-term degenerative diseases
    -Deficiency diseases

    *Incidence of a disease: number of people who are diagnosed over a certain period of time
    *Prevalence of a disease: number of people who have that disease ar any one time
    *Epidermic: sudden increase in the number of people with a disease
    *Panademic: increase in the number of cases throughout a continent or across the world
    *Motality: death rate from different diseases

    Human pathogen transmission
    -contaminated water
    -airbone transmission
    -Contract and faces
    -Pathogens in blood steam and tissues

    Classification
    -Transmission cycle: way in which a pathogen passes from one host(living org. that has the pathogen inside) to another.
    -control methods: try to break transmission cycles
    -vaccination
    How do they work?
    -antibiotics (against bacteria &fungi)
    ¬-selective toxicity (killing or disturbing pathogens but not host cells)
    -Narrow spectrum (active only against a few)
    -Broad spectrum (against a wide range)

    -antibiotic sensitivity test
    Antibiotics are not always the answer
    -Antiiotics only fight infections caused by bacteria
    -Bacteria can adapt and survive the effect of antibiotics, so they don`t always work
    -The more you use antibiotics, the more resistant bacteria become

  14. Nicolás Araya dijo:

    Disease

    Illness/disorder of the body –> poor health – each one is linked to several symptoms

    Non-infectious:
    Inherited/genetic
    Mental

    Degenerative
    Deficiency

    Infectious:
    Communicable (can be transfered)

    Endemic disease, always in populations
    Incidence – new patients over a certain period of time
    Prevalence – number of people who are ill, not the new ones
    Epidemic – sudden increase
    Pandemic – increase across the world
    Mortality – death rate

    Human pathogen transmition:
    By air
    By contact and faeces
    By water
    By pathogens in blood-streams and tissues

    Transmission cycle: how pathogens move from one host to another.
    To control you need to break the trans. cycle. Vaccination is a solution.

    Antibiotics
    Selective toxicity – killing/disabling pathogen but not host cells
    Can have a broad or narrow spectrum.
    They are not always the answer.

  15. Piky Loza and Fran Okecki dijo:

    -Disease: Illness or disorder of the body or mind leads to poor health.
    -The diseases present symptoms.
    -There are non infectious diseases (cannot be transmit to other person) and diseases caused by pathogens.
    -Endemic diseases: it is always in population. Different number of people can be affected: incidence, prevalence, epidemic, pandemic, mortality.
    – Human pathogen transmission could be by water, contact with other people, by fluids of the body, etc.
    -Transmission cycle: way in which a pathogen passes from one host to another.
    -Control methods: try to break transmission cycle.
    -Vaccination.
    -Antibiotics (against bacteria and fungi): selective toxicity, broad spectrum and narrow spectrum.
    -There are antibiotic sensitivity tests.

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